What are Japanese participles?
Let’s learn particle made/まで for now.
How to use particle made/まで
made/まで is similar to the English preposition until.
In English, prepositions are always followed by a noun group and make a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase plays the grammatical role of an adjective or adverb.
Similarly, made/まで always follow a noun group and make a postpositional phrase, which plays the grammatical role of an adverb. That is, postpositional phrases usually tell us more about verbs.
Gakkoo made aruita.
がっこう まで あるいた。
学校 まで 歩いた。
[school until walked]
I walked to school.
made/まで indicates end point
made/まで is used to show where the action ends. Let's have a look at an example.
Ie kara eki made aruita.
いえ から えき まで あるいた。
家 から 駅 まで 歩いた。
[house from station until walked]
I walked from my house to the station.
Here, made/まで comes after "eki", and this tell us that station is where the act of walking ends.
made/まで indicates end time
made/まで is used to show when the action ends. Let's have a look at an example.
Roku-ji made koko ni i-masu.
ろくじ まで ここ に います。
六時 まで ここ に います。
[6 o'clock until here ni/に stay]
I'm going to stay here until 6 o'clock.
6 o'clock is the time when the act of staying ends, and we know this because “roku-ji” is followed by made/まで.
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